This module is a complete introduction to web looking techniques and techniques. Assuming no prior knowledge, the module will provide an explanation for ways to find what you are “surely” seeking out in preference to lots of other exciting links. Searching is straightforward; finding what you’re searching out can every now and then be tough. Hopefully the recommendation under will make your next Web Search powerful. While 3 quarters of the Web users of the arena cite finding statistics as their most vital use of the Internet, that identical percent also cite their lack of ability to discover the facts they need as their biggest frustration. The reason of this module is that will help you cease that frustration. Staff at ICIMOD also indicated, at some stage in education needs evaluation, Internet Searching be taken up as a concern subject matter.
Part A: Tools and Effective Searching
1. Overview of the World Wide Web
2. Before Starting the Search
3. Tools for Searching
4. Which Tools need to you operate
5. Building your Search Strategy
6. Keywords Searching
7. Phrase Searching
8. Boolean search
nine. Advanced Search/Field Searching
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10. Checking the Results
11. Useful to Know
Part B: References
Part C: Practical Exercise – Lets Start Searching!
1. Overview of World Wide Web
The Internet isn’t just about information; it’s far an international network of individuals who share statistics, engage, and communicate. From the point of view of its customers, the Internet is a good sized series of assets–people, statistics, and multimedia.
The Internet is an inter-related network of networks, the World Wide Web is the “digital” web linking those networks. Each system (or group of machines – instance ICIMOD computers related to the net thru V-SAT) on a community has a unique “cope with” from which it is able to request and receive facts. A Web “browser” is a customer program that requests facts from other computers which briefly characteristic as “servers” sending the statistics upon request. The Web has existed for a long term, however its exponential use and boom began in 1995 whilst graphical Web browsers (like Netscape, Internet Explorer) became more famous. At ICIMOD, Internet Explorer is the widely used web browser. With those graphical internet browsers, the Internet mainly web have become “user pleasant”, and those commenced to develop and put up net sites and net pages. Hyperlink is the advantage of the web pages. Hyperlink is the detail on a web site that hyperlinks to another page/region in the equal internet site or to a completely exclusive internet site. Typically, you click on the link to comply with the hyperlink.
There are billions of web web sites on the internet. With billions of web pages online, you may spend an entire life surfing the Web, following links from one page to any other. Amusing possibly, however not very efficient if you are some unique facts. One of the biggest problems we enjoy is the difficulty of finding focused/unique records. Where do you begin from? Searching
Searching the Internet calls for skill, good fortune and a little bit of artwork.
2. Before Starting the Search
The simplest way to find information is whilst you recognise an internet web page Internet deal with or URL (Uniform Resource Locator) which include ICIMOD home website. You can locate those addresses on business playing cards, email signatures, or newspapers. Simply kind the URL in the browser’s address container and hit the key. If you do no longer realize the URL, you may should find it through searching the Internet. In many instances, a easy seek at the name of an company inside maximum search engines will return a right away hit on their web web page.
3. Tools for Searching
There are many search equipment to be had:
· Web Directories / Virtual Library / Library Gateways
· Search Engines / Meta-search engines
· Deep internet databases
‘Web Directories’ (difficulty directory) are the repositories of useful web websites organized right into a hierarchical, problem-based structure. They require people to view the man or woman Web site and determine its placement into a topic classification scheme or taxonomy. Once performed, sure key phrases associated with the ones sites may be used for searching the directory’s statistics banks to find Web websites of interest.
For searches which are effortlessly categorized, consisting of companies of shades, the quest directories have a tendency to provide the most regular and properly-clustered outcomes. This advantage is usually constrained totally to the ones type areas already used inside the taxonomy with the aid of that provider. Yahoo, as an example, has approximately 2,000 classifications (excluding what it calls ‘Regional’ ones, that are a duplication of the foremost class areas through geographic area) in its modern taxonomy. The Open Directory Project has nearly 590,000 classes and 5,142,051 websites. Some broadly used net directories are:
Open Directory Project (ODP) – the largest net listing
Virtual library is an internet directory that includes incredibly selective hyperlinks, chosen commonly through librarians. Use library gateways when you are seeking out excessive first-rate statistics sites on the Web. You can be pretty sure that those web sites have been reviewed and evaluated by situation experts for their accuracy and content material. Popular virtual libraries consist of:
Librarians’ Index to the Internet
Internet Public Library
The WWW Virtual Library
Funded with the aid of Danida and Sida and hosted with the aid of the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, Eldis gives a huge series of assets for forty development-related sectors
SD Gateway carries over 1200 documents relating to sustainable improvement, NGOs
Mountain Forum’s Online Library, for articles and courses on worldwide mountain problems
Search engines index each paintings within all or part of documents. When you pose a question to a search engine, it suits your query works in opposition to the records it has in its databases to provide a list of feasible files meeting your request. Search engines are best for searches in more difficult topic areas or the ones which fall into the grey regions between the concern classifications utilized by directories. But, search engines like google and yahoo are silly, and might only provide you with what you ask for. You can every so often get hundreds of documents matching a question. Also, at high-quality, even the biggest search engines like google and yahoo best index a small fraction of the Internet’s files.
It is important to remember the fact that while you are using a search engine, you’re NOT looking the entire internet because it exists at this second. You are genuinely searching a part of the internet, captured in a set index created at an earlier date.
Popular search engines like google and yahoo currently are:
Meta-serps do now not crawl the net compiling their personal searchable databases. Instead, they seek the databases of multiple sets of individual engines like google concurrently, from a unmarried website online and using the identical interface. Meta-searchers provide a brief way of locating out which engines are retrieving the exceptional consequences for you to your seek
Deep internet (or invisible web or hidden web databases) is the call given to pages on the World Wide Web that are not listed with the aid of conventional engines like google. It consists of pages which aren’t related to through other pages, consisting of Dynamic Web pages. Dynamic Web pages are basically searchable databases that deliver Web pages generated simply in reaction to a query.
Four. Which Tools You Should Use
If you are searching out specific information, use search engines (e.G. Paper supplied on biodiversity in 2005 ABCD convention. You would also use a keyword look for obscure topics, go-class searches (e.G. Mountain and GIS, surroundings and soil)
If you are searching out wellknown statistics on famous topics, use difficulty (internet) directories. You may also use in instances, wherein you do no longer recognize any keywords associated with a topic
Use virtual library/Library gateways whilst you are seeking out excessive exceptional facts websites on the Web. You can be pretty sure that those web sites were reviewed and evaluated by means of problem experts for his or her accuracy and content.
If you’re looking for a completely unique or difficult to understand search term or if you need to make an in-depth analysis of what’s accessible on the Web on a particular problem, then use metasearch engines.
If you are searching out actual-time records or for dynamically changing content material inclusive of the brand new information, smartphone ebook listings, to be had airline flights, and so on., then use deep databases (invisible or deep web.)
five. Building Your Search Strategy
Your ability to discover the facts you searching for on the Internet is a function of ways unique your queries are and the way correctly you operate search offerings. Poor queries go back poor results; true queries return super consequences. Search effects are handiest as desirable as the query you pose and the way you search. There is not any silver bullet.
The data experts at the University of California at Berkeley advise a graduated method to Web searching. Here is their stepwise collection of steps to follow, which we typically propose for beginning searchers:
1. ANALYZE your subject matter to determine in which to begin
2. Pick the proper beginning place
3. Learn as you go & VARY your method with what you analyze
four. Don’t bog down in any strategy that doesn’t work
5. Return to previous strategies higher informed.
As you benefit enjoy, you can begin cutting out the middle steps. By the time you are doing real heavy lifting along with your queries, you without a doubt handiest need spend a while first getting your question proper after which cutting to the bottom line with a full Boolean search the usage of phrases and three or so concepts connected thru the AND operator and more than one search engines like google and yahoo.
Following those pointers, right here are advocated steps to approaching the Internet search venture:
· Spend time BEFORE your search to investigate what it’s far you’re seeking out
· Use nouns for your queries – the who/what, when, wherein, how and why; avoid conjunctions, verbs, adverbs and adjectives
· Use keywords at the right “degree” of specificity: unique, but not overly restrictive
· Use phrases in which herbal; they’re your most powerful weapon
· Use established (“Boolean”) syntax, particularly the ‘AND’ operator
· Constrain your search by means of the use of two or 3 related, however narrowing, standards for your query
· BUT, typically, preserve overall question length confined to six to eight key phrases most
· Use superior seek options and area of expertise capabilities while suitable
· For difficult searches, use handiest engines like google that support Boolean syntax, or gear or metasearchers that do
· For precise topic searches, don’t forget search engines like google and yahoo tailored to those subjects
6. Keywords Searching
Despite all of the gobbledygook approximately such things as ‘Boolean’ and implied operators, the most difficult – and essential – thing of a seek are the keywords used in your query. Mastering the standards behind a seek is not as complex as may additionally seem at the start. The first few searches are perhaps difficult, however, once performed, the nuggets at the back of your records request begin turning into clear. Like using a motorbike for the primary time, it does take some exercise.
Before typing the keywords, take it slow and brainstorm applicable words. Create a listing of seek phrases. Write them down. A few seconds of brainstorming may want to save you mins or hours of retrieving beside the point consequences.
What are the traits to look for at the same time as shopping a diamond? You could underline the primary standards, hence – What are the traits to look for even as buying a diamond. Select synonyms and variant words, if required- (first-class, functions) (buying, buying).
Formulate a question with easy idea/phrases first, e.G. Search phrases – “diamond shopping for guide” is right enough.
7. Phrase Searching
A very effective way to growth the relevance or precision of “hits” is to go looking as a word. In most instances honestly method setting citation marks across the search phrases. “net looking” is a one of a kind search than internet searching in most search engines. What you’re in reality doing through searching as a word is using the idea of proximity which worries the terms’ physical closeness to each other (that is, their proximity). A record with net looking taking place close or subsequent to each other are more likely to be on track than a report with net inside the name and searching buried within the textual content.
Find the range of listing decreased from 30,100,000 to 977,000 when the usage of the word for looking internet searching.
8. Boolean seek
Boolean searching is an implementation of Boolean good judgment and set theory. Boolean operators, along with AND, OR and NOT are used to mix seek sets in a selection of methods and appear inside Internet search engines in a number of disguises. A very quick overview:
Search word: cats AND puppies or cats dogs
manner locate internet pages wherein each terms occur
Search word: cats OR dogs
method locate net pages in which both time period happens
Search word: cats NOT puppies (use cats -puppies in Google as NOT is not supported)
manner discover web pages wherein the time period puppies seems but no longer cats
Most web engines like google have the functionality to enforce those fundamental Boolean operators but can also gift them in a one of a kind way. You will nearly constantly need to go to an “Advanced” seek function to use authentic Boolean operators; however, you’ll be able to search the usage of implied Boolean the use of the symbols + (ought to include) or – (exclude) from the “Basic” search interface.
Note: those Boolean operators are regularly provided as options like “encompass all the phrases,” (AND operator) “encompass any of the phrases,” (OR operator) and “exclude” (NOT operator).
While you might expect that engines like google default to an implied AND (which means that in case you input 2 seek terms it returns documents in which they BOTH occur) in fact this isn’t always usually the case — a few serps default to the first of all unhelpful OR (it returns documents wherein EITHER occur)
Use an *, known as a wildcard, to healthy any phrase(s) in a phrase (enclosed in prices) specifically with Google.
Search phrase: “Mountain * poverty”
way discover web pages containing a phrase that begins with “mountain” observed by a word(s), followed via “poverty”
Phrases that match consist of: “mountain assuaging poverty”, “mountain regions poverty”, “mountain areas remained in poverty”
9. Advanced Search / Field looking
Remember that a web seek engine is most effective as exact as its database and indexes. Databases are collections of records organized in a similar manner; honestly put, this indicates they’re divided into fields that include the equal information in every record. If records is entered into a separate subject you could retrieve it using its discipline label. This method that if you need to go looking by way of title, the search engine seems in a unique identify index (or searches notations that suggest that the time period occurs within the title area) where it has collected information from the sector with the label title. Many keyword seek engine additionally have an “advanced search” alternative, additionally known as area searching. This will allow you to specify in which key phrases should appear, permitting extra manage over the consequences.
Field looking is so super due to the fact you could specify in which to look inside the web record; for instance, inside the name handiest, or the URL fields. Field searching allows you to be very unique approximately in which you want you terms to occur and consequently is a completely powerful tool.
Field Searching is likewise the technique used in searching databases. Particularly, websites sharing databases offer this as a search device inside a website. For example, to search ICIMOD’s Library database or Mailing List Database or even FAO’s guides database, area looking is provided.
Nesting is using brackets with Boolean operators, to make your search query syntax more meaningful and particular. For instance, pan pizza and either coke or ice-cream, and cheese
Simple simply type in “pan pizza” AND coke OR ice-cream AND cheese. But, this syntax might be puzzling to serps as it can be interpreted with many meanings – it could suggest pan pizza and coke, or coke and cheese, so we use brackets to split the blocks – “pan pizza” AND (coke OR ice-cream) AND cheese. Just don’t forget your excessive faculty arithmetic.
10. Checking the Results
Now you have a tough activity. After a seek, you have to determine which of the search effects will take you to the most informative site. Your excellent bet is to take a look at the identify and description of the page. Are they relevant to your seek? If sure, open the web page. If no longer, check the following result, by way of scrolling down at the right side of the browser.
To view a page you have got two alternatives
1. Click on the name of the page – despite the fact that says “No identify” or “?????”. Place the cursor on the web page name and the cursor will exchange to the photograph of a hand. Usually the hyperlinks are in blue and underlined, however often they’re not.
2. The second method is to open the page in a new browser window. Right-click over the identify of the result. This produces a pop-up menu. Select “open (hyperlink) in new window.” After checking the end result, near the brand new browser window. You will nevertheless have the first window browser along with your search.
If you use the first method most probable you’ll not use the again button to head returned to the results page, but alternatively, you’ll virtually near the window, losing the hunt web page altogether.
What to do when you get TOO MANY outcomes
It’s not unusual to obtain hundreds of thousands of outcomes, regularly unrelated to the hunt. To receive greater applicable outcomes you’ll have to refine or maybe rethink the quest. Here are some ideas to help you refine your seek:
Add one or more descriptive phrases in your query.
Use phrases. Enclose or extra phrases that may seem in genuine order inside double quotation marks.
Use Boolean Operator as you want to be specific or Exclude phrases with NOT or implied Boolean.
Use the hunt tool’s “superior seek” features. Limit you’re seeking by means of language, date or by area looking: title, URL, link etc.
What to do when you get TOO FEW effects
Sometimes you will get messages like “Your search did now not healthy any files” or “No pages have been found containing your question” or “No effects.” Other times you could get few or irrelevant results. What should do you do:
· Check the spelling of the question. Some engines like google routinely hit upon misspelled phrases and will display the right spelling. Just click on the suggested phrase or phrases.
· Delete the least essential phrase from the query.
· If you used a seek terms try removing the double charges.
· Use greater preferred phrases, trade spellings, plural paperwork or synonyms. “Google™ has lately introduced a brand new advanced seek function that lets you to no longer best look for a particular key-word but also for its synonyms. Just location the “~” (tilde) mark directly in the front of the keyword for your search question. For example, “UN ~vacancies” no longer simplest searches for “UN vacancies”, however also for “UN activity opportunities”, “UN employment opportunities” and “UN Jobs”
Evaluating the Results
First of all, don’t believe everything you read on the Internet. Be careful what you believe. Governmental corporations, academic establishments, libraries and prestigious courses are the most reliable sources of statistics. Be circumspect with facts discovered on personal websites saved in free hosts.